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Recommandation de politique générale no 9 de l’ECRI (Révisée) sur la prévention et la lutte contre l’antisémitisme (2021)

Racism
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L’organe d’experts du Conseil de l’Europe sur le racisme et l’intolérance (ECRI) a publié une Recommandation de politique générale actualisée sur la prévention et la lutte contre l’antisémitisme, afin de contribuer à prévenir la montée de l’antisémitisme et la multiplication des agressions contre les juifs dans de nombreuses régions d’Europe.

Notant que les actes antisémites sont commis par un large éventail d’auteurs, y compris des néonazis et des extrémistes politiques et religieux, la Recommandation de l’ECRI donne des orientations globales aux gouvernements sur la manière de lutter contre l’antisémitisme dans quatre domaines spécifiques :
• Politiques et coordination institutionnelle ;
• Prévention et éducation ;
• Protection des Juifs, des communautés juives et de leurs institutions ;
• Poursuites et applications des lois.

En ce qui concerne la prévention et l’éducation, l’ECRI encourage les acteurs politiques, les leaders d’opinion et les autres personnalités publiques à prendre fermement et publiquement position contre l’antisémitisme, en précisant que l’antisémitisme ne doit jamais être toléré. L’ECRI recommande de prendre en compte la définition opérationnelle de l’antisémitisme de l’Alliance internationale pour la mémoire de l’Holocauste (IHRA) comme outil non juridique permettant de mieux comprendre et d’identifier les expressions de l’antisémitisme (voir l’Avis de l’ECRI sur la définition opérationnelle de l’antisémitisme de l’IHRA).

L'ECRI propose également aux gouvernements d’établir des règles à l’intention des sociétés de l’Internet, y compris les réseaux sociaux, les opérateurs de télécommunications et les fournisseurs de services internet, afin de mettre en place des systèmes efficaces de détection et de suppression du discours de haine antisémite en ligne, conformément aux normes internationales en matière de droits humains.

En ce qui concerne les mesures de protection, la Recommandation suggère aux gouvernements d’assurer la protection des Juifs, des communautés juives et de leurs institutions en encourageant leur coopération avec les autorités nationales et locales chargées du maintien de l’ordre et de la sécurité. L’ECRI propose également d’améliorer la coopération avec les communautés juives afin de déterminer et de mettre en œuvre les mesures de sécurité nécessaires et d’assurer un soutien financier.

Chaque fois que les tensions s’aggravent à la suite d’un regain de violence au Moyen-Orient, on constate une multiplication des généralisations à l’emporte-pièce sur les Juifs et une recrudescence de la violence antisémite également en Europe. Ainsi que le souligne l’ECRI, il arrive trop souvent que l’accent ne soit pas mis suffisamment sur la nécessité de distinguer entre la critique légitime des actions d'Israël, dans la mesure où Israël est traité comme n’importe quel autre Etat, et l’expression publique du racisme et de la haine à l’encontre des Juifs en général.

Dans le domaine des poursuites et de l’application des lois, l’ECRI recommande « de faire en sorte que les infractions pénales à caractère antisémite soient réprimées de la même manière qu’elles soient commises en ligne ou autrement, qu’elles fassent dûment l’objet de poursuites et d’autres mesures effectives, et que les propos de haine antisémites illicites soient promptement et systématiquement supprimés par les fournisseurs de services internet, conformément au cadre juridique et non juridique applicable ».