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Catalog

Newsletter

Étude sur l’impact des systèmes d’intelligence artificielle, leur potentiel de promotion de l’égalité, y compris l’égalité de genre, et les risques qu’ils peuvent entraîner en matière de non-discrimination (2023)

Artificial intelligence
Format : PDF PDF
107623FRA
Type of document :
Document
Format :
PDF
Language :
French
Size :
1.16 MB
Number of pages :
106
Conseil de l'Europe - Ivana Bartoletti et Raphaële Xenidis
Free
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COMMISSION POUR L’ÉGALITÉ DE GENRE (GEC) ET LE COMITÉ DIRECTEUR SUR L’ANTI-DISCRIMINATION, LA DIVERSITÉ ET L’INCLUSION (CDADI)

Alors que le déploiement des systèmes algorithmiques et des applications d’intelligence artificielle (IA) ne cesse de prendre de l’ampleur et de l’importance, la discrimination algorithmique est un sujet de préoccupation croissante pour les citoyens et les citoyennes. Des mesures réglementaires sont en train d’être élaborées partout dans le monde.
La présente étude enquête dans la perspective de limiter les risques de discrimination liés aux technologies algorithmiques, les réponses juridiques spécifiques à la discrimination algorithmique que peut proposer le Conseil de l’Europe, et le potentiel de ces technologies pour promouvoir l’égalité, y compris l’égalité de genre.
INTRODUCTION : LE CONTEXTE
SECTION 1
PRÉSENTATION DU « BIAIS AUTOMATISÉ » : COMMENT LES TECHNOLOGIES ALGORITHMIQUES PEUVENT-ELLES CONDUIRE À LA DISCRIMINATION ?
1) Qu’est-ce que l’IA ?
2) Qu’est-ce que le biais algorithmique ?
3) L’impact discriminatoire de l’IA : quelques exemples concrets
4) En quoi la discrimination algorithmique est-elle différente d’autres formes de dicrimination?
5) La lutte contre la discrimination algorithmique : les meilleures pratiques et leurs limites
6) Questions de représentation et de participation : le manque de diversité et d’inclusion dans le secteur de l’IA
SECTION 2
LE PAYSAGE JURIDIQUE ET POLITIQUE EN EUROPE : FORCES ET FAIBLESSES
I. La discrimination et l’égalité : les instruments juridiques et politiques et leurs limites
II. Le droit relatif à la vie privée et à la protection des données : équité et exactitude
III. Les réglementations sectorielles de l’IA : forces et limites pour la promotion de l’égalité et la lutte contre la discrimination
SECTION 3
LA PROMOTION DE L’ÉGALITÉ DANS ET PAR L’UTILISATION DE L’IA : LE RÔLE DES ACTIONS ET OBLIGATIONS POSITIVES
I. La révision des règles existantes à la lumière des nouvelles asymétries de pouvoir
II. Une obligation de promouvoir l’égalité dans et par l’utilisation de systèmes algorithmiques : le rôle des actions et obligations positives
SECTION 4
RECOMMANDATIONS
Recommandations relatives à la politique des pouvoirs publics : vers une approche de l’IA fondée sur les droits humains