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Catalog

Newsletter

Responsabilité et compétence dans les affaires de diffamation en ligne (2019)

Internet
Format : PDF PDF
112119FRA
Type of document :
Report
Format :
PDF
Language :
French
Size :
1,37 MB
Number of pages :
46
Comité d’experts sur les dimensions des droits de l’homme dans le traitement des données et les différentes formes d’intelligence artificielle (MSI-AUT) Rapporteur: Emeric Prévost
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Étude sur les formes de responsabilité et questions de compétence juridictionnelle relatives à l’application du droit civil et administratif en matière de diffamation dans les États membres du Conseil de l’Europe

En raison de l’interconnexion croissante des sociétés modernes, les contenus publiés en ligne dans un État peuvent être consultés instantanément et partout dans le monde, ce qui peut avoir un impact énorme. Une déclaration prétendument diffamatoire peut donc être considérée comme ayant causé des dommages dans plusieurs États, ce qui peut entraîner des litiges juridiques internationaux complexes. En effet, le forum shopping est devenu plus fréquent et plus créatif ces dernières années, ce qui peut avoir un impact négatif sur la liberté d’expression.

Cette étude vise à mieux comprendre le phénomène du forum shopping dans les affaires contemporaines de diffamation et à distinguer les facteurs qui peuvent y être favorables, en vue d’identifier les bonnes pratiques existantes ou émergentes.
INTRODUCTION
1) Recherche opportuniste de juridiction dans les affaires de diffamation
(i) le phénomène du « forum shopping »
(ii) Forum shopping dans les affaires de diffamation et risques du point de vue des droits de l’homme
(iii) Tentatives d’adoption de mesures à l’égard du « forum shopping » et de ses effets négatifs
2) Questions abordées et méthodologie de l’étude
FORUM SHOPPING ET RÈGLES EN MATIÈRE DE COMPÉTENCE INTERNATIONALE DIRECTE ET LA RECONNAISSANCE ET L’EXÉCUTION DES JUGEMENTS ÉTRANGERS
1) Règles de compétence internationale directe et risques de forum shopping connexes
(i) Le domicile du défendeur et le principe de la lex loci delicti – rappel
(ii) Délits complexes – considérations générales
(iii) Délits complexes en matière de diffamation et approche de la CEJ
(iv) Règles de compétence internationale directe dans le régime de la Convention de Lugano
(v) Les règles de compétence internationale directe dans le contexte du Brexit
2) Le forum shopping et les règles de reconnaissance et d’exécution des jugements étrangers
(i) L’exception d’ordre public
(ii) Exception de fraude à la loi
(iii) Exception de chose jugée (res judicata)
RECENSEMENT DES FACTEURS SUSCEPTIBLES D’INFLUER SUR LA PRATIQUE DU FORUM SHOPPING EN MATIÈRE DE DIFFAMATION
1) Délais de prescription
2) Charge de la preuve et exigences en matière de preuve
3) Action en constatation négative (action déclaratoire négative)
4) Jugement par défaut
5) Type et montant des dommages-intérêts
6) Le coût de la procédure
7) Financement par une tierce partie
8) Injonctions judiciaires et infraction d’outrage au tribunal
9) Abus de droit
10) Doctrine du forum non conveniens
11) Règles de conflit de lois
CONCLUSION
TABLEAUX
TABLEAU 1. États appliquant les instruments du régime de Bruxelles
TABLEAU 1. État actuel du droit de l’UE concernant les règles relatives à la compétence internationale directe
BIBLIOGRAPHIE