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Visiter les lieux où des enfants sont privés de liberté à la suite de procédures d'immigration - Guide à l’intention des Parlementaires (2018)

Migration
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Veiller à ce que les politiques et pratiques en place respectent les droits des enfants et le principe de l’intérêt supérieur de l’enfant dans le contexte des migrations

La rétention administrative n’est jamais dans l’intérêt d’un enfant. Pourtant, dans les Etats membres du Conseil de l’Europe, des milliers d’enfants se réveillent chaque jour en rétention. Ces enfants sont souvent hors de vue et éloignée des gouvernements, des législateurs et le grand public. Le seul moyen de mettre fin à la rétention administrative des enfants est par une prise de conscience, les législateurs doivent agir pour modifier leurs politiques et leurs pratiques.

Les parlementaires ont le pouvoir de faire en sorte que cela se produise. Il est donc essentiel qu’ils soient informés des effets de la rétention sur les enfants, afin de devenir des défenseurs efficaces de la fin de cette pratique. Les visites des parlementaires peuvent également avoir d’importants effets dissuasifs et réduire les violations des droits de l’homme dans les lieux de rétention.

Ce guide vise à aider les parlementaires à visiter les endroits où les enfants sont privés de liberté suite à des procédures d’immigration, en fournissant des informations sur la façon de planifier une telle visite, y compris des conseils utiles et des listes de contrôle.

L’Assemblée parlementaire du Conseil de l’Europe a lancé une campagne parlementaire visant à mettre fin à la rétention des enfants en matière d’immigration, afin de renforcer le rôle des parlements nationaux dans la protection et la promotion des droits des enfants migrants conformément aux normes internationales et du Conseil de l’Europe et à promouvoir des pratiques alternatives à la rétention qui sont positives et protectrices. En adoptant une approche fondée sur les droits de l’enfant, ce guide complète le guide de l’Assemblée parlementaire Visiter les centres de détention de l’immigration, mettant davantage l’accent sur la situation des enfants et le rôle des parlementaires.

REMERCIEMENTS
MESSAGE DE LA PART DE LA RAPPORTEUSE GÉNÉRALE DE LA CAMPAGNE PARLEMENTAIRE POUR METTRE FIN À LA RÉTENTION D’ENFANTS MIGRANTS
AVANT-PROPOS DU COMMISSAIRE AUX DROITS DE L’HOMME
INTRODUCTION
GLOSSAIRE DES PRINCIPAUX TERMES UTILISÉS
1. POURQUOI LES PARLEMENTAIRES DOIVENT-ILS RENDRE VISITE À DES ENFANTS MIGRANTS PLACÉS EN RÉTENTION (RAISON D’ÊTRE DE CES VISITES) ?
2. LES ENFANTS MIGRANTS NE DOIVENT PAS ÊTRE PLACÉS EN RÉTENTION
     a. Normes internationales et européennes
     b. La rétention est néfaste aux enfants
     c. Alternatives à la rétention
3. INFORMATIONS DE BASE CONCERNANT LA RÉTENTION D’ENFANTS MIGRANTS
     a. Quelle est la durée de leur rétention ?
     b. Qui les place en rétention ?
     c. Pourquoi sont-ils placés en rétention ?
     d. Dans quelles circonstances et dans quelles conditions se déroule la rétention ?
4. PRÉPARER LA VISITE DE LIEUX OÙ DES ENFANTS MIGRANTS SONT RETENUS
     a. Principes de base
     b. Préparer la visite
     c. Définir les objectifs de la visite
     d. Constituer l’équipe qui assurera la visite et organiser son travail
5. DÉROULEMENT DE LA VISITE
     a. Quels sont les points à vérifier dans un centre où des enfants sont placés en rétention ?
     b. Comment mener des entretiens avec des enfants
6. SUIVI DE LA VISITE
7. ANNEXES
Annexe 1 – Les enfants et la rétention : normes juridiques
Annexe 2 – Alternatives à la rétention
Annexe 3 – Lignes directrices pour l’établissement de rapports
Annexe 4 – Aide-mémoire pour l’entretien avec un enfant
8. RÉFÉRENCES BIBLIOGRAPHIQUES