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Catalog

Newsletter

Responsabilité et IA (2019)

Artificial intelligence
Format : PDF PDF
112019FRA
Type of document :
Report
Format :
PDF
Language :
French
Size :
1,95 MB
Number of pages :
102
Comité d’experts sur les dimensions des droits de l’homme dans le traitement des données et les différentes formes d’intelligence artificielle (MSI-AUT) Rapporteur: Karen Yeung
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Étude sur les incidences des technologies numériques avancées (dont l’intelligence artificielle) sur la notion de responsabilité, sous l’angle des droits humains

Les technologies et services numériques de pointe, y compris les outils d’IA, sont extrêmement prometteurs, en particulier sous la forme d’une efficacité, d’une précision, d’une rapidité et d’une commodité accrues dans un large éventail de services. Mais l’émergence de ces technologies s’accompagne également d’une inquiétude croissante de l’opinion publique quant à leurs effets potentiellement préjudiciables pour les individus, pour les groupes vulnérables et pour la société en général.

Étant donné leur omniprésence dans la vie quotidienne, nous devons acquérir une meilleure compréhension de leur impact sur l’exercice des droits de l’homme et des libertés fondamentales, et nous devrions examiner avec soin l’attribution de la responsabilité en cas de conséquences défavorables. Si nous voulons prendre les droits de l’homme au sérieux dans une ère numérique mondialement connectée, nous ne pouvons permettre que la puissance de nos technologies et systèmes numériques avancés, et de ceux qui en tirent profit, s’accumule et s’exerce sans responsabilité.

Des mécanismes de gouvernance et d’application efficaces et démocratiquement légitimées doivent être mis en place pour s’assurer que la responsabilité des risques, des préjudices et des torts découlant de l’exploitation des technologies numériques avancées est dûment attribuée.
Introduction
Résumé
Chapitre 1. Introduction
1.1 Champ de l’étude
1.2 Structure de l’étude
1.3 Incidences de l’IA sur la notion de responsabilité
1.4 Incidences envisagées sous l’angle des droits de l’homme
Chapitre 2. Risques potentiels et avérés, dommages et autres effets négatifs des technologies numériques avancées
2.1 La montée des systèmes de prise de décision algorithmique (ADM)
2.1.1 Quels sont les droits compromis par les systèmes d’ADM ?
2.1.2 Problèmes sociétaux associés au profilage par les données
2.2 Menaces et risques sociétaux collectifs générés par d'autres technologies d'IA
2.2.1 Attaques malveillantes, conception non éthique du système ou défaillance involontaire du système
2.2.2 Perte d'un rapport humain authentique, réel et significatif
2.2.3 Effet dissuasif de la réutilisation des données
2.2.4 Exercice irresponsable du pouvoir conféré par le numérique
2.2.5 La privatisation cachée de décisions relatives aux intérêts public
2.2.6 Exploitation de main-d’oeuvre humaine pour entraîner les algorithmes
2.3 Asymétrie des pouvoirs et menaces pour les fondements socio-techniques de la communauté morale et démocratique
2.4 Résumé
Chapitre 3. Qui est responsable des menaces, des risques, des préjudices et des torts causés par les technologies numériques avancées ?
3.1 Qu’est-ce que la responsabilité et en quoi est-elle importante ?
3.2 Les différents aspects de la responsabilité
3.3 Liens entre technologies numériques avancées (dont l’IA) et conceptions actuelles de la responsabilité
3.3.1 Responsabilité prospective : codes d’éthique volontaires et « robotique responsable »
3.3.2 Machines autonomes et « problème de contrôle »
3.4 Modèles d’attribution de la responsabilité
3.4.1 Modèles fondés sur l’intention/la culpabilité
3.4.2 Modèles fondés sur le risque/la négligence
3.4.3 Responsabilité absolue
3.4.4 Régime d’assurance obligatoire
3.5 Défis liés à la complexité des systèmes sociotechniques
3.5.1 Le problème des acteurs multiples
3.5.2 L’interaction humain-machine
3.5.3 Interactions imprévisibles et changeantes entre systèmes sociotechniques complexes
3.6 Obligation de l’État d’assurer une protection effective des droits de l’homme
3.7 Rôle des mécanismes extrajudiciaires
3.7.1 Dispositifs de protection techniques
3.7.2 Instruments et techniques de régulation
3.7.3 Définition, suivi et application de normes
3.8 Renouveler le discours sur les droits de l’homme à l’heure des réseaux numériques
3.9 Résumé
Chapitre 4. Conclusion
Annexe A
Références