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Catalog

Newsletter

Lignes directrices relatives à la protection des personnes à l’égard du traitement des données à caractère personnel dans le cadre des campagnes politiques (2022)

International law
Format : PDF PDF
003822FRA
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Format :
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Language :
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Size :
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Number of pages :
32
Comité consultatif de la Convention Convention 108 pour la protection des personnes à l’égard du traitement automatisé des données à caractère personnel
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Comment concilier les droits à la vie privée des électeurs avec les obligations des campagnes politiques?

Dans la plupart des pays, les élections sont de plus en plus orientées par les données. Une «industrie de l’influence politique » permet aujourd’hui, dans le cadre des campagnes politiques, de profiler l’électorat avec une précision croissante. Une communication politique efficace à travers des campagnes politiques est essentielle aux gouvernements démocratiques. Les électeurs ont besoin d’être informés sur les candidats, les partis politiques et sur leurs programmes et politiques futures. Dialoguer avec l’électorat et le mobiliser seront plus efficaces si les organisateurs de campagnes politiques disposent d’informations précises sur les convictions, les préférences et les intentions des électeurs.

Grâce aux technologies numériques et outils de communication actuels, on peut cibler les électeurs avec plus de précision. Dans nombre de pays, cela permet de profiler l’électorat avec une précision croissante pour délivrer des messages «microciblés ». La confiance et l’assurance que les élections sont conduites de façon intègre peuvent être sapées par des pratiques dissimulées qui entraînent la manipulation de certaines données pour la fourniture de messages ciblés. Au-delà de l’engagement politique, le «micro-ciblage» politique peut conduire à éloigner les votants et les décourager d’exercer leurs droits démocratiques.

La Convention 108+ est fondée explicitement sur un objectif général consistant à «garantir la dignité humaine ainsi que la protection des droits de l’homme et des libertés fondamentales […]». Elle protège « l’autonomie personnelle, fondée sur le droit de toute personne de contrôler ses propres données à caractère personnel et le traitement qui en est fait » et reconnait que « le droit à la protection des données à caractère personnel est à considérer au regard de son rôle dans la société et qu’il est à concilier avec d’autres droits de l’homme et libertés fondamentales, dont la liberté d’expression». Protéger le droit à la vie privée dans les campagnes politiques est dont crucial pour le déroulement d’élections libres et équitables.

Ces lignes directrices visent à fournir des conseils pratiques sur comment concilier les droits à la vie privée des électeurs avec les obligations des campagnes politiques. Elles proposent un cadre à partir duquel les autorités chargées de la protection des données personnelles et d’autres autorités de réglementation pourront établir des orientations plus précises en fonction de la situation politique, institutionnelle et culturelle propre à l’État démocratique dont elles relèvent, en conformité ave la Convention 108+ du Conseil de l’Europe.
1. INTRODUCTION 
2. PORTÉE ET OBJET 
3. DÉFINITIONS APPLICABLES AUX FINS DES PRÉSENTES LIGNES DIRECTRICES 
4. L’APPLICATION DE LA CONVENTION 108+ AUX CAMPAGNES POLITIQUES ET AUX ORGANISATIONS DE CAMPAGNES 
4.1. Légitimité du traitement des données et qualité des données (article 5) 
4.2. Traitement de la catégorie particulière de données relative aux opinions politiques (article 6) 
4.3. Sécurité des données dans les campagnes politiques (article 7) 
4.4. Transparence du traitement des données à caractère personnel dans les campagnes politiques (article 8) 
4.5. Droits des personnes concernées (article 9) 
4.6. Obligations complémentaires des organisations de campagnes politiques (article 10) 
5. RECOMMANDATIONS À L’INTENTION DES AUTORITÉS DE CONTRÔLE (ARTICLE 15)