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Covid-19 : une analyse des aspects relatifs à l’anti-discrimination, à la diversité et à l’inclusion dans les États membres du Conseil de l’Europe (2021)

Living Together - Diversity and Freedom in Europe
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Comité directeur sur l’antidiscrimination, la diversité et l’inclusion (CDADI) - Étude réalisée pour le CDADI par : Stéphanie Cramer Marsal (auteure principale), Christian Ahlund et Robin Wilson
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Anti-discrimination, diversité et inclusion: une analyse de la réponse des États à la pandémie de Covid-19

Les grands bouleversements internationaux sont un terreau généralement favorable aux discours nationalistes et à la désignation de l’« autre » comme bouc émissaire. La crise sanitaire ne fait pas exception à la règle. En effet, des personnes appartenant à des minorités nationales, à des communautés de migrants ou des communautés LGBTI auraient été victimes d’une stigmatisation en raison d’un lien (prétendu) entre le virus et leur appartenance communautaire. À un niveau plus structurel, la crise a également amplifié tant les forces que les faiblesses des sociétés en ce qui concerne la création de conditions d’égalité et d’inclusion pour tous et le renforcement de la résilience des sociétés diversifiées face à de telles crises.

Le rapport est structuré en trois chapitres : le premier vise à fournir un cadre conceptuel pour aborder les aspects liés à l’anti-discrimination, la diversité et l’inclusion des réponses des États à la pandémie de Covid-19. Il s’appuie sur les trois piliers du Conseil de l’Europe que sont les droits de l’homme, la démocratie et la primauté du droit. Le deuxième chapitre passe en revue quelques-unes des questions les plus importantes qui ont été soulevées au cours de cette crise sanitaire dans les principaux domaines suivants : la non-discrimination, les discours de haine, la violence contre les LGBTI, l’accès à la santé, au logement, à l’éducation et à d’autres services publics, la participation socio-économique et enfin la sécurité et l’application de la loi. Ces deux chapitres ont permis de formuler des recommandations à l’intention des États membres du Conseil de l’Europe, lesquelles sont exposées au chapitre trois.
1. INTRODUCTION 
1.1. La pandémie de Covid-19 et les sociétés diversifiées et inclusives 
1.2. Principaux défis et opportunités 
1.3. Processus d’élaboration du rapport 
2. L’ANTI-DISCRIMINATION, LA DIVERSITÉ ET L’INCLUSION DANS LA RÉPONSE À LA PANDÉMIE DE COVID-19 : QUELQUES ÉLÉMENTS STRUCTURELS 
2.1. États d’urgence, droits de l’homme, démocratie et primauté du droit 
2.2. La bonne gouvernance 
3. LES GRANDS DÉFIS À RELEVER DANS LES PRINCIPAUX DOMAINES D’INTERVENTION DE L’ÉTAT 
3.1. Anti-discrimination et égalité 
3.2. Discours de haine 
3.3. La violence à l’encontre des personnes LGBTI 
3.4. L’accès aux services publics : santé, logement, éducation 
3.5. La participation socioéconomique 
3.6. La sécurité et l’application de la loi 
4. REMARQUES FINALES 
5. RECOMMANDATIONS 
ANNEXE 
Les aspects relatifs a l’antidiscrimination, la diversité et l’inclusion de la réponse à la pandémie de Covid-19