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Catalog

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Solutions numériques pour lutter contre la Covid-19 - Rapport sur la protection des données 2020 (2020)

Fundamental freedoms
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Comment les gouvernements des 55 États parties à la "Convention 108" sur la protection des données ont-ils pu faire face de manière urgente à cette crise Covid-19 sans précédent ? Quelles lacunes en matière de protection de la vie privée et des données personnelles ont été identifiées dans certaines des mesures juridiques et techniques prises pour prévenir la propagation de la pandémie ?

L’année 2020 a marqué un tournant à bien des égards, notamment pour la protection des données.

Les défis auxquels sont confrontés nos sociétés, nos gouvernements et nos systèmes de soins de santé dans le monde entier ont donné une occasion unique de réaffirmer nos valeurs fondatrices que sont la démocratie, l’État de droit et les droits de l’homme. Confrontés à la crise sanitaire due à la pandémie de covid-19, les gouvernements ont cherché à protéger leurs populations et à répondre efficacement à des besoins urgents et vitaux. Certaines mesures d’urgence adoptées ont affecté l’exercice des droits à la vie privée et à la protection des données. Dans le même temps, l’utilisation de technologies permettant la communication à distance au lieu de contacts humains et d’algorithmes remplaçant l’intervention humaine a tout simplement explosé. Les technologies numériques employées dans les lieux publics pour surveiller la population et à domicile pour travailler à distance ou s’autodiagnostiquer, ou encore pour se former à distance deviennent la nouvelle normalité de nos vies.

La manière dont la crise sanitaire a été traitée incite à réaffirmer que la résilience des principes de protection des données est un élément clé du fonctionnement efficace de nos démocraties. Une meilleure connaissance et un plus grand respect de ces exigences contribuent à renforcer la confiance que les citoyens accordent aux décisions prises par leurs gouvernements et à mieux faire accepter les mesures adoptées dans l’intérêt général. L’avenir réside dans notre capacité à réagir rapidement aux nouveaux défis sans porter atteinte à nos valeurs fondamentales et ni courir à nos sociétés des risques plus importants à long terme que les menaces actuelles auxquelles nous devons faire face.

Ce rapport fait le point sur les solutions numériques adoptées dans le cadre de la covid-19, ou prévues, dans plus de 50 pays d’Afrique, d’Europe et d’Amérique latine. Il donne un aperçu des mesures juridiques et techniques qui ont été mises en œuvre et de leur impact sur la protection des données.
RÉSUMÉ 
INTRODUCTION 
I. ANALYSE JURIDIQUE DES DÉVELOPPEMENTS LÉGISLATIFS 
A. Mesures d’urgence 
B. Analyse de l’impact sur des dispositions spécifiques de la Convention 108 et de la Convention 108+ 
1. Base juridique 
2. Limitation de la finalité, conservation et partage des données 
3. Proportionnalité 
4. Mesures de sécurité 
5. Transparence 
6. Droits des personnes concernées 
7. Prise de décision automatisée et utilisation de l’IA 
8. Responsabilité, évaluation de l’impact sur la vie privée, respect de la vie privée lors de la conception et par défaut 
9. Flux transfrontières de données 
10. Applications et sanctions 
C. Législation spécifique et traitement des données à caractère personnel 
1. Applications pour téléphones mobiles 
2. Utilisation des données relatives à la localisation et au déplacement des personnes provenant de téléphones et d’applications mobiles 
3. Autres solutions numériques 
4. Développement du télétravail et de l’enseignement à distance 
II. ETUDE DE CAS : L’UTILISATION D’APPLICATIONS NUMÉRIQUES 
A. Applications de suivi numérique des contacts 
1. Applications de suivi centralisées 
2. Applications de suivi décentralisées 
B. Autres finalités 
C. Engagement public et participation du secteur privé 
D. Transparence et Open source 
E. Attentes des utilisateurs