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Médias, élections et égalité des genres - Étude pour une meilleure prise en compte de l’égalité des genres dans la couverture médiatique des élections (2018)

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Lorsqu’un homme entre en politique, les médias ne prêtent généralement aucune attention à son appartenance sexuelle. Lorsqu’une femme se porte candidate, le fait qu’elle soit une femme est presque toujours relevé...

Cette étude passe en revue les images transmises des hommes et femmes politiques durant les campagnes électorales et jusqu’à quel degré la représentation du genre influence les décisions des électeurs durant les campagnes. L’étude consiste en une analyse de rapports d’études existants et en un schéma des pratiques en cours au sein des États membres du Conseil de l’Europe.

L’étude démontre que les femmes politiques bénéficient d’une manière générale de moins d’attention de la part des médias que leurs homologues masculins, alors que leur genre fait fréquemment la une des débats. À cela se rajoute le fait que les messages électoraux sont principalement rédigés par des journalistes, éditeurs et experts masculins, le niveau de promotion des femmes à des postes de responsabilité restant relativement bas. L’étude réaffirme la nécessité de réguler l’égalité des genres et de l’intégrer dans tous les aspects de la couverture médiatique des élections, y compris par la mise en œuvre des normes existantes du Conseil de l’Europe, ainsi que par le biais de la recherche et de la formation aux médias.

INTRODUCTION
OBJECTIFS DE L’ÉTUDE
PARTIE I – LES INSTRUMENTS JURIDIQUES DU CONSEIL DE L’EUROPE
1. Recommandation CM/Rec(2013)1 du Comité des Ministres aux États membres sur l’égalité entre les femmes et les hommes et les médias
2. Recommandation CM/Rec(2011)7 du Comité des Ministres aux États membres sur une nouvelle conception des médias
3. Recommandation CM/Rec(2007)15 du Comité des Ministres aux États membres sur des mesures concernant la couverture des campagnes électorales par les médias
4. Recommandation CM/Rec(2007)17 du Comité des Ministres sur les normes et mécanismes d’égalité entre les femmes et les hommes
5. Recommandation Rec(2003)3 du Comité des Ministres aux États membres sur la mission des médias de service public dans la société de l’information
6. Mise en œuvre des normes existantes du Conseil de l’Europe
PARTIE II – LES MÉDIAS ET L’ÉGALITÉ DES GENRES
1. Données relatives à la couverture médiatique des hommes et des femmes politiques
2. Raisons de l’inégalité de genre dans la couverture médiatique des femmes candidates
3. Couverture médiatique des élections dans une perspective de genre
4. Influence des reportages des médias sur l’opinion des électeurs
PARTIE III – EXAMEN DES PRATIQUES ET MÉCANISMES NATIONAUX DE RÉGULATION ET D’AUTORÉGULATION
1. Exigences légales en matière d’égalité des genres dans les médias
2. Stratégies des organismes de réglementation des médias et des autorités chargées de la promotion de l’égalité des genres dans les médias
3. Autorégulation des médias
4. Initiatives de la société civile
5. Outils et orientations visant à améliorer la représentation des genres dans les médias
PARTIE IV – CONCLUSIONS
1. Mécanismes de réglementation et d’autorégulation
2. Éducation et formation des médias
3. Travaux de recherche
RÉFÉRENCES BIBLIOGRAPHIQUES