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Catalog

Newsletter

Les parlements nationaux, garants des droits de l’homme en Europe (2018)

Parliamentary Assembly 
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Depuis près de 70 ans, l’Assemblée parlementaire du Conseil de l’Europe inspire les parlementaires à s’appuyer sur leurs mandats démocratiques pour promouvoir une culture commune du respect des droits de l’homme dans le cadre d’une démocratie fondée sur l’État de droit.

En leur qualité de législateurs et de représentants des citoyens européens, les parlementaires ont la responsabilité, partagée avec les pouvoirs exécutif et judiciaire de leurs États, de prévenir et de dénoncer les violations des droits de l’homme. Pour ce faire, ils peuvent assurer la mise en oeuvre effective des normes internationales applicables en matière de droits de l’homme, auxquelles leurs pays ont volontairement souscrit, en particulier celles consacrées par la Convention européenne des droits de l’homme.

Ce guide a pour objectif d’aider les parlementaires à travers l’Europe à s’acquitter de leurs responsabilités et à saisir les opportunités de protéger et de mettre en oeuvre les droits de l’homme. À cette fin, le guide examine les structures, les fonctions et les méthodes de travail qui permettent aux parlements de vérifier le plus efficacement possible la compatibilité des lois, y compris des projets de loi et des pratiques administratives dans leurs pays avec les normes européennes en matière de droits de l’homme. Celles-ci émanent de la Convention, mais également de la jurisprudence de la Cour de Strasbourg, et des travaux d’autres organes du Conseil de l’Europe. En guise d’inspiration, le guide inclut également des exemples de bonnes pratiques dans plusieurs parlements européens.

AVANT-PROPOS
ABRÉVIATIONS
GLOSSAIRE DES PRINCIPAUX TERMES
LE CONSEIL DE L’EUROPE EN BREF
     Assemblée parlementaire du Conseil de l’Europe
     Comité des Ministres
     Convention européenne des droits de l’homme
     Cour européenne des droits de l’homme
CHAPITRE 1 – QUEL EST L’OBJECTIF DE CE GUIDE ?
CHAPITRE 2 – QUELLES SONT LES OBLIGATIONS DES PARLEMENTAIRES EN MATIÈRE DE DROITS DE L’HOMME?
     2.1. La reconnaissance croissante du rôle des parlementaires en tant que garants des droits de l’homme
     2.2. L’obligation des parlementaires d’adopter des mesures positives
CHAPITRE 3 – QUE DOIVENT FAIRE LES PARLEMENTAIRES POUR REMPLIR LEURS OBLIGATIONS EN MATIÈRE DE DROITS DE L’HOMME?
     3.1. Les fonctions des parlementaires concernant les droits de l’homme
     3.2. Comment l’exécutif devrait-il aider les parlementaires à remplir leurs fonctions en matière de droits de l’homme?
     3.3. Matérialiser la responsabilité partagée en matière de droits de l’homme
CHAPITRE 4 – COMMENT LES PARLEMENTAIRES DOIVENT-ILS S’ORGANISER POUR REMPLIR LEURS OBLIGATIONS EN MATIÈRE DE DROITS DE L’HOMME?
     4.1. Les modes d’organisation des travaux parlementaires sur les droits de l’homme
     4.2. Aider l’ensemble des parlementaires à devenir les garants des droits de l’homme
CHAPITRE 5 – COMMENT LES PARLEMENTAIRES PEUVENT-ILS ASSURER L’EFFICACITÉ DE L’ACTION DES STRUCTURES CONSACRÉES AUX DROITS DE L’HOMME?
     5.1. Statut et mandat
     5.2. Composition
     5.3. Compétences
     5.4. Méthodes de travail
     5.5. Établir des relations avec le monde extérieur
     5.6. Formation et assistance technique
     5.7. Évaluer l’efficacité d’une commission des droits de l’homme
CHAPITRE 6 – COMMENT PERMETTRE AUX PARLEMENTAIRES D’ENTRETENIR DES RAPPORTS PLUS ÉTROITS AVEC LE CONSEIL DE L’EUROPE?
     6.1. Le rôle et les attributions spécifiques des délégués auprès de l’APCE
     6.2. Comment permettre à tous les parlementaires d’établir des rapports plus étroits avec le Conseil d’Europe?
     6.3. Obtenir l’assentiment de la Cour européenne des droits de l’homme: le respect par la Cour des bonnes pratiques parlementaires
CONCLUSION
ANNEXE 1 – LISTE RÉCAPITULATIVE À L’INTENTION DES PARLEMENTAIRES
ANNEXE 2 – RÉSOLUTION 1823 (2011) DE L’APCE
ANNEXE 3 – BIBLIOGRAPHIE ET SOURCES COMPLÉMENTAIRES