In its new Recommendation, ECRI underlined that Muslims are part and parcel of Europe’s diversity, to which they have contributed for centuries, and recalled that collective action was needed to build inclusive societies that bring communities and individuals closer together and ensure equal dignity and mutual respect through shared democratic values.
ECRI noted with concern in recent years that anti-Muslim hatred and prejudice have often been prevalent in society, dispersing across institutional, political, social and economic life. ECRI therefore decided to provide comprehensive guidance to governments on how to address anti-Muslim racism and discrimination in four specific areas: i) policies and institutional coordination, ii) prevention, iii) protection, and iv) prosecution and law enforcement.
II. BACKGROUND AND CONTEXT
A. Historical development
B. Framing concepts and definitions
C. Contemporary forms of anti-Muslim racism and discrimination
D. Impact on Muslims
A. Policies and Institutional Coordination
D. Prosecution / Law Enforcement
Case law cited in parts II and III