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Catalog

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Convention d'Istanbul - Crimes commis au nom du prétendu « honneur » (2019)

Violence against women
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La Convention du Conseil de l’Europe sur la prévention et la lutte contre la violence à l’égard des femmes et la violence domestique (Convention d’Istanbul, STCE no 210) couvre, sous ses formes diverses, la violence fondée sur le genre, définie comme « toute violence faite à l’égard d’une femme parce qu’elle est une femme ou affectant les femmes de manière disproportionnée » (article 3.d).

Les crimes dits « d’honneur » sont l’une des formes de la violence fondée sur le genre. Toutefois, il est parfaitement vain de chercher la preuve d’une criminalisation proprement dite de ces crimes. Les rédacteurs de la convention ont analysé très soigneusement les caractéristiques des crimes dits « d’honneur », les raisons pour lesquelles ils sont perpétrés et les objectifs visés par leurs auteurs. Cette analyse a montré que les crimes commis au nom du prétendu « honneur » appartiennent généralement à la sphère du droit pénal des États membres du Conseil de l’Europe depuis très longtemps : le meurtre, l’homicide, le dommage corporel, etc. Ce qui les rend différents, c’est leur intention. Ils sont commis dans un but autre que la recherche de l’effet immédiat du crime, ou venant s’y ajouter. Ce motif caché peut être le rétablissement de l’honneur familial, le désir d’être considéré comme une personne qui respecte les traditions ou se conforme aux préceptes religieux, culturels ou coutumiers perçus comme importants par une communauté déterminée. Pour bien rendre compte de cette situation, les rédacteurs de la convention ont abandonné l’idée originelle d’instaurer une infraction pénale distincte pour les crimes dits « d’honneur » et sont convenus de rejeter toute tentative pour justifier un comportement criminel en s’appuyant sur la culture, la coutume, la religion, la tradition ou le prétendu « honneur ».