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Liability and jurisdictional issues in online defamation cases (2019)

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Rapport
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Anglais
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44
Expert Committee on human rights dimensions of automated data processing and different forms of artificial intelligence (MSI-AUT) Rapporteur: Emeric Prévost
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Study on forms of liability and jurisdictional issues in the application of civil and administrative defamation laws in Council of Europe member states

Owing to the growing inter-connectedness of modern societies, content published online in one state can be accessed instantly and across the globe, possibly generating enormous impact. An allegedly defamatory statement can therefore be considered to have produced damage in several states,
which may result in complex international legal disputes.

Indeed, the occurrence of forum shopping has become more frequent as well as more creative in recent years, which can negatively impact on freedom of expression.

This study aims to provide a better understanding of the phenomenon of forum shopping in contemporary defamation cases, and to distinguish factors that may be conducive to it, with a view to identifying existing or emerging good practices.
INTRODUCTION 
1) Forum shopping in defamation cases 
(i) The phenomenon of forum shopping 
(ii) Forum shopping in defamation cases and related human rights risks 
(iii) Attempts to address forum shopping and its negative effects 
2) The scope and methodology of the study 
FORUM SHOPPING AND RULES ON DIRECT INTERNATIONAL JURISDICTION, AND RECOGNITION AND ENFORCEMENT OF FOREIGN JUDGMENTS 
1) Rules on direct international jurisdiction and related risks of forum shopping 
(i) The domicile of the defendant and the lex loci delicti rule – a reminder 
(ii) Complex tort issue – general considerations 
(iii) Complex tort issue in defamation cases and the approach of the ECJ 
(iv) Rules on direct international jurisdiction under the Lugano Convention regime 
(v) The rules on direct international jurisdiction in the context of Brexit 
2) Forum shopping and the rules on recognition and enforcement of foreign judgments 
(i) The public order exception 
(ii) The hypothesis of fraudulent behaviour 
(iii) The res judicata exception 
IDENTIFYING FACTORS THAT MAY INFLUENCE THE OCCURRENCE OF FORUM SHOPPING IN DEFAMATION CASES 
1) Limitation periods 
2) The burden of proof and the standard of proof 
3) Negative declaratory action 
4) Default judgment 
5) The kind and amount of damages 
6) The cost of proceedings 
7) Third party funding 
8) Court injunctions and the offence of contempt of court 
9) Abuse of rights 
10) Forum non conveniens doctrine 
11) Conflict of laws rules 
CONCLUSION 
TABLES AND CHARTS 
CHART 1. States applying Brussels regime instruments
TABLE 1. The current state of EU law regarding rules on direct international jurisdiction 
BIBLIOGRAPHY