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Catalog

Newsletter

Compilation of Venice Commission Opinions and Reports concerning prosecutors (2022)

International law
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European Commission for Democracy through Law (Venice Commission)
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This document is a compilation of extracts taken from opinions and reports/studies adopted by the Venice Commission on issues concerning prosecutors – their status, functions, guarantees of independence, their accountability, internal organisation of the prosecution service, its relation to other branches of the government, etc. This compilation does not concern fair trials guarantees and impartiality of the courts. Its aim is to provide an overview of the doctrine of the Venice Commission on this topic.

The compilation is intended to serve as a source of reference for drafters of constitutions and of legislation on the prosecution service, researchers, as well as for the Venice Commission’s members, who are requested to prepare opinions and reports concerning legislation dealing with such issues.
VENICE COMMISSION: OVERVIEW
INTRODUCTION
I. INDEPENDENCE v. AUTONOMY OF THE PROSECUTION SERVICE
II. LEVEL OF REGULATION: CONSTITUTION, LEGISLATION, DECREES, SELF-REGULATION
II.A - RULES ON THE PROSECUTION SERVICE IN GENERAL
II.B - RULES ON THE PROSECUTORIAL COUNCIL
III. FUNCTIONS AND POWERS OF THE PROSECUTION SERVICE
III.A - POWERS IN THE CRIMINAL FIELD
III.A.1 Investigation and prosecution of crimes on behalf of the State in criminal cases
III.A.2 Specific powers of the prosecution related to criminal investigations
III.A.2.a Decision to prosecute or not to prosecute
III.A.2.b Supervision of the investigation by the prosecutors and the courts
III.A.3 Specialized prosecutors
III.B - OTHER FUNCTIONS OF THE PROSECUTION SERVICE
III.B.1 Participation in civil proceedings in the interests of private individuals or State entities
III.B.2 Right to initiate extraordinary review proceedings
III.B.3 General supervision of “legality” of actions of other State bodies, private individuals and entities. Other powers of the prosecution in non-criminal field
III.B.4 Right of legislative initiative
IV. STATUS OF THE PROSECUTORS
IV.A - THE POSITION OF THE PROSECUTION SERVICE
IV.A.1 Relations with other State bodies
IV.A.2. Financial independence of the prosecution service
IV.A.3. Prosecutors and the media
IV.B - PROSECUTOR GENERAL
IV.B.1 Appointment of the Prosecutor General
IV.B.2 Term of office of the Prosecutor General
IV.B.3 Early removal of the Prosecutor General or his/her suspension
IV.C - OTHER PROSECUTORS: APPOINTMENT, TENURE, SUBORDINATION, TRANSFERS
IV.C.1 Appointment of the lower prosecutors
IV.C.1.a Appointing body
IV.C.1.b Qualification requirements
IV.C.1.c Appointment procedure
IV.C.2 Term of office and the early termination of office not for prosecutor’s fault
IV.C.3 Remuneration of the prosecutors, staffing of the prosecutor’s offices
IV.C.4 Internal independence and the hierarchical organization of the prosecutorial system
IV.C.5 Promotions, transfers, secondments, etc.
IV.D - IMMUNITIES, CIVIL AND CRIMINAL LIABILITY OF PROSECUTORS
IV.E - PERFORMANCE ASSESSMENT, DISCIPLINARY LIABILITY AND DISCIPLINARY PROCEEDINGS 133
IV.E.1 Performance assessment and promotions
IV.E.2 Grounds for disciplinary liability and sanctions
IV.E.3 Disciplinary proceedings
IV.E.3.a. Bodies entitled to examine disciplinary cases
IV.E.3.b. Procedure of examining disciplinary cases
V. CONFLICTS OF INTEREST AND INCOMPATIBILITIES
VI. PROSECUTORIAL COUNCIL
VI.A - FUNCTIONS AND POWERS OF THE PROSECUTORIAL COUNCIL
VI.A.1 Main mandate of the prosecutorial council
VI.A.2. Prosecutorial council, its subordinated bodies and other bodies managing the prosecution system
VI.B - COMPOSITION OF THE PROSECUTORIAL COUNCIL AND THE STATUS OF ITS MEMBERS
VI.B.1 Composition of the prosecutorial council
VI.B.1.a A joint council with the judges or a separate prosecutorial council?
VI.B.1.b Balance between prosecutorial and lay members
VI.B.1.c Eligibility requirements for members
VI.B.1.d Ex officio members or members delegated by independent institutions
VI.B.2. Election/appointment of the members of the prosecutorial council
VI.B.2.a Election/appointment of lay members; anti-deadlock mechanisms
VI.B.2.b Election/appointment of prosecutorial members
VI.B.3 Term of office of the members of the prosecutorial Council and their early removal
VI.B.3. a Duration of the mandate and the possibility of reelection
VI.B.3.b Early termination of the mandate: dismissal, retirement, reorganisation of the council
VI.B.4 Election/appointment/dismissal of the President of the prosecutorial council. Other bodies of the council
VI.B.5 Procedures before the prosecutorial council
VI.B.6 Other questions related to the status of members of the prosecutorial council
VII. REFERENCE DOCUMENTS
Guidelines and studies
Opinions on specific countries