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Aspects juridiques et pratiques des alternatives efficaces à la rétention dans le contexte des migrations (2018)

Migration
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La présente analyse fournit un aperçu global des normes internationales en matière de droits de l’homme qui sont pertinentes dans le contexte des alternatives à la rétention de migrants, en soulignant en particulier la jurisprudence de la Cour européenne des droits de l’homme et autres standards du Conseil de l’Europe. D’un point de vue pratique, l’analyse identifie plusieurs éléments qui s’avèrent essentiels pour rendre effectives les alternatives à la rétention de migrants, en termes de respect des droits de l’homme et de conformité aux procédures applicables aux migrations, ainsi qu’en termes de coût. L’analyse fournit également une liste non exhaustive de différents types d’alternatives à la rétention dans le contexte des migrations, en expliquant les traits principaux de chaque alternative, ses avantages et ses inconvénients potentiels.
RESUME 
I. INTRODUCTION 
1. CONTEXTE 
2. MANDAT 
3. DEFINITIONS ET PORTEE 
3.1. Définitions 
3.1.1. Rétention des migrants 
3.1.2. Alternatives à la rétention des migrants 
3.2. Portée de l’Analyse, personnes concernées et sources consultées 
II. ASPECTS JURIDIQUES : NORMES RELATIVES AUX DROITS DE L’HOMME APPLICABLES 
1. LA COUR EUROPEENNE DES DROITS DE L'HOMME ET D’AUTRES NORMES DU CONSEIL DE L’EUROPE 
1.1. Droit à la liberté : Article 5 de la Convention 
1.1.1. Conditions générales 
1.1.2. Détention au regard de l’article 5 § 1 f) 
1.1.3. Détention au regard de l’article 5 § 1 b) 
1.2. Garanties procédurales 
1.3. Obligation d'envisager des alternatives à la rétention (autres instances du Conseil de l'Europe) 
1.4. Obligations positives relatives à la vulnérabilité 
1.4.1. Jurisprudence de la Cour 
1.4.2. Autres organes du Conseil de l’Europe 
1.4.3. Considérations spécifiques pour les personnes en situation de vulnérabilité 
1.5. Assurer la dignité et le respect des autres droits fondamentaux des personnes placées dans la communauté
1.5.1. Restrictions à la liberté de circulation 
1.5.2. Conditions de vie 
2. AUTRES NORMES INTERNATIONALES (ORGANISATION DES NATIONS UNIES ET UNION EUROPEENNE) 
2.1. Droit à la liberté 
2.2. Obligation d’envisager des alternatives à la rétention 
2.3. Garanties procédurales 
2.4. Obligation positive d’éviter la détention des personnes en situation de vulnérabilité 
2.5. Les alternatives doivent toujours se fonder sur la mesure la moins restrictive possible 
2.6. Les alternatives ne doivent jamais constituer une privation de liberté ou des restrictions arbitraires à la liberté de circulation 
2.7. Les alternatives doivent être inscrites dans la loi et soumise à un contrôle juridictionnel 
2.8. Les alternatives doivent veiller à la dignité humaine et au respect des autres droits fondamentaux 
III. ASPECTS PRATIQUES : DES ALTERNATIVES EFFICACES À LA RÉTENTION DES MIGRANTS 
1. FACTEURS ESSENTIELS D’EFFICACITE 
1.1. Vérifications initiales et évaluation 
1.2. Accès à l’information 
1.3. Assistance juridique 
1.4. Susciter la confiance dans le traitement des demandes d’asile et d’immigration 
1.5. Suivi individualisé des dossiers 
1.6. Protection de la dignité humaine et des droits fondamentaux 
2. TYPES D’ALTERNATIVES A LA RETENTION DES MIGRANTS 
2.1. Inscription auprès des autorités 
2.2. Titre de séjour temporaire
2.3. Soutien par un suivi individualisé du dossier ou par un travailleur social 
2.4. Placement en structure familiale 
2.5. Placement en structure d’accueil 
2.6. Centres ouverts ou semi-ouverts 
2.7. Pointage régulier 
2.8. Assignation à résidence 
2.9. Encadrement 
2.10.Accompagnement du retour 
2.11.Foyers ou centres pour personnes en attente de retour 
2.12.Caution, garantie et sûretés 
2.13.Surveillance électronique 
3. AVANTAGES DES MESURES ALTERNATIVES A LA RETENTION 
3.1. Respect des droits et des besoins des personnes 
3.2. Respect des procédures de migration par les migrants 
3.3. Rapport coût-efficacité 
IV. APERÇU DES POLITIQUES ET PRATIQUES SUR LES MESURES ALTERNATIVES À LA RÉTENTION DES MIGRANTS 
V. SUITE À DONNER : CE QUE POURRAIT FAIRE LE CDDH - VALEUR AJOUTÉE ET PROCHAINES ÉTAPES 
1. NECESSITE DE POURSUIVRE LES TRAVAUX 
2. PROCHAINES ACTIONS ENVISAGEABLES