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Catalog

Newsletter

L'impact de l'intelligence artificielle sur les relations médecin-patient (2022)

Bioethics
Format : PDF PDF
ImpactAI_Med_Patient_FRA
Type of document :
Report
Format :
PDF
Language :
French
Size :
1,18 MB
Number of pages :
78
Brent Mittelstadt
Free
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Si les promesses de l’IA sont évidentes, une importante zone d’incertitude n’en subsiste pas moins concernant ses répercussions sur la pratique des soins de santé, et en particulier sur la relation médecin-patient.

Le Comité directeur pour les droits de l'Homme dans les domaines de la biomédecine et de la santé (CDBIO) du Conseil de l'Europe a publié un nouveau rapport sur l'impact de l'intelligence artificielle sur la relation médecin-patient, préparé par Brent Mittelstadt, Chercheur principal et directeur de recherche à l'Oxford Internet Institute, Université d'Oxford.

Le rapport examine les systèmes d'IA concernant la relation médecin-patient au regard des principes des droits de l'homme visés par la Convention européenne sur les droits de l'homme et la biomédecine de 1997, également connue sous le nom de "Convention d'Oviedo". Plus précisément, le rapport étudie l'impact potentiel de l'IA sur les droits de l'homme selon six thèmes : (1) Inégalité dans l’accès à des soins de santé de qualité ; (2) Transparence vis-à-vis des professionnels de la santé et des patients ; (3) Risque de biais social dans les systèmes d’IA ; (4) Dilution de la prise en compte du bien-être du patient, (5) Risques de biais d’automatisation, de perte de compétences et de déplacement de la responsabilité ; (6) Conséquences sur le droit à la vie privée.
1. ELEMENTS ESSENTIELS 
2. INTRODUCTION 
3. HISTORIQUE ET CONTEXTE
Les défis éthiques communément rencontrés en matière d’IA
La Convention d’Oviedo et les principes des droits de l’homme en matière de santé 
4. VUE D’ENSEMBLE DES TECHNOLOGIES DE L’IA EN MEDECINE
5. CADRE THEORIQUE DE LA RELATION MEDECIN-PATIENT
L’éthique professionnelle dans le domaine de la médecine
Nouveaux défis des relations médecin-patient 
6. LES CONSEQUENCES POTENTIELLES DE L’IA SUR LA RELATION MEDECIN-PATIENT 
Inégalité dans l’accès à des soins de santé de qualité 
Transparence vis-à-vis des professionnels de la santé et des patients 
Risque de biais social dans les systèmes d’IA 
Dilution de la prise en compte du bien-être du patient 
Risques de biais d’automatisation, de perte de compétences et de déplacement de la responsabilité 
Conséquences sur le droit à la vie privée 
7. RECOMMANDATIONS CONCERNANT DES NORMES ETHIQUES COMMUNES POUR UNE IA FIABLE 
Exigences d'intelligibilité du consentement éclairé
Registre public des systèmes d'IA médicale pour la transparence 
Collecte de données sensibles pour la vérification des biais et de l'équité 
8. OBSERVATIONS FINALES 
Annexe : Vertus médicales