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Catalog

Newsletter

Un cadre juridique pour les systèmes d'intelligence artificielle (2021)

Artificial intelligence
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CAHAI - Comité ad hoc sur l’intelligence artificielle
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Proposer un cadre juridique approprié pour les systèmes d'intelligence artificielle

Avec cette étude de faisabilité, le CAHAI (Comité ad hoc sur l’intelligence artificielle) a exploré les raisons pour lesquelles un cadre juridique sur le développement, la conception et l’application de l’IA, fondé sur les normes du Conseil de l’Europe sur les droits de l’homme, la démocratie et l’état de droit, est nécessaire.

Un certain nombre de lacunes substantielles et procédurales ont été identifiées, qui montrent la nécessité d’un cadre de gouvernance plus complet et d’une réponse juridique internationale efficace. L’étude conclut qu’un cadre juridique complet combinant des instruments juridiques contraignants et non contraignants, qui se complètent mutuellement, est la voie à suivre.


1. INTRODUCTION GÉNÉRALE 
2. CHAMP D’APPLICATION D’UN CADRE JURIDIQUE DU CONSEIL DE L’EUROPE SUR L’IA 
3. OPPORTUNITÉS ET RISQUES DÉCOULANT DE LA CONCEPTION, DU DÉVELOPPEMENT ET DE L’APPLICATION DE L’INTELLIGENCE ARTIFICIELLE POUR LES DROITS DE L’HOMME, L’ÉTAT DE DROIT ET LA DÉMOCRATIE
3.1. Introduction 
3.2. Les opportunités de l’intelligence artificielle 
3.3. Impact sur les droits de l’homme, la démocratie et l’État de droit 
3.4. Une approche contextuelle et fondée sur le risque pour régir l’IA 
4. LES TRAVAUX DU CONSEIL DE L’EUROPE DANS LE DOMAINE DE L’INTELLIGENCE ARTIFICIELLE À CE JOUR 
4.1. Travaux dans le domaine de la protection des données à caractère personnel 
4.2. Travaux dans le domaine de la cybercriminalité 
4.3. Travaux dans le domaine des systèmes algorithmiques 
4.4. Travaux dans le domaine de la justice 
4.5. Travaux dans le domaine de la bonne gouvernance et des élections 
4.6. Travaux dans le domaine de l’égalité des genres et de la non-discrimination 
4.7. Travaux dans les domaines de l’éducation, de la jeunesse et de la culture 
4.8. Les travaux de l’Assemblée parlementaire du Conseil de l’Europe 
4.9. Les travaux du Congrès des pouvoirs locaux et régionaux du Conseil de l’Europe 
4.10. Les travaux de la Commissaire aux droits de l’homme 
4.11. Les travaux du Conseil de l’Europe dans le domaine de la jeunesse 
4.12. La jurisprudence de la Cour européenne des droits de l’homme relative aux technologies de l’information 
5. CARTOGRAPHIE DES INSTRUMENTS APPLICABLES À L’INTELLIGENCE ARTIFICIELLE 
5.1. Instruments juridiques internationaux applicables à l’intelligence artificielle 
5.2. Lignes directrices éthiques applicables à l’intelligence artificielle 
5.3. Aperçu des instruments, politiques et stratégies nationaux relatifs à l’intelligence artificielle 
5.4. Avantages, inconvénients et limites des instruments internationaux et nationaux existants et des lignes directrices éthiques sur l’intelligence artificielle 
5.5. Instruments juridiques internationaux, lignes directrices en matière d’éthique et acteurs du secteur privé 
6. PRINCIPALES CONCLUSIONS DES CONSULTATIONS MULTIPARTITES 
7. PRINCIPAUX ÉLÉMENTS D’UN CADRE JURIDIQUE POUR LA CONCEPTION, LE DÉVELOPPEMENT ET L’APPLICATION DE L’INTELLIGENCE ARTIFICIELLE 
7.1. Valeurs, droits et principes clés découlant - dans une perspective ascendante – d’approches sectorielles et de lignes directrices éthiques, dans une perspective descendante - des exigences en matière de droits de l’homme, de démocratie et d’État de droit 
8. OPTIONS ENVISAGEABLES POUR L’ÉTABLISSEMENT D’UN CADRE JURIDIQUE DU CONSEIL DE L’EUROPE POUR LE DÉVELOPPEMENT ET L’APPLICATION DE L’INTELLIGENCE ARTIFICIELLE, FONDÉES SUR LES DROITS DE L’HOMME, LA DÉMOCRATIE ET DE L’ÉTAT DE DROIT
8.1. Modernisation des instruments juridiques contraignants en vigueur 
8.2. Adoption d’un nouvel instrument juridique contraignant : convention ou convention-cadre 
8.3. Instruments juridiques non contraignants 
8.4. Autres formes de soutien apporté aux États membres, tel que l’identification des bonnes pratiques 
8.5. Éventuelle complémentarité entre les éléments horizontaux et transversaux susceptibles de faire partie d’un instrument de type convention, et le travail vertical et sectoriel qui pourrait donner lieu à des instruments spécifiques de nature différente
9. MÉCANISMES PRATIQUES ET DE SUIVIS POSSIBLES POUR ASSURER LA CONFORMITÉ ET L’EFFICACITÉ DU CADRE JURIDIQUE
9.1. Le rôle des mécanismes de conformité 
9.2. Le rôle des différents acteurs 
9.3. Exemples de types de mécanismes de conformité 
9.4. Mécanismes de suivi 
10. CONSIDÉRATIONS FINALES