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Catalog

Intelligence artificielle, droits de l'homme, démocratie et État de droit - Guide introductif (2021)

Artificial intelligence
Format : PDF PDF
AI_Primer_FRA
Type of document :
Document
Format :
PDF
Language :
French
Size :
3,04 MB
Number of pages :
50
David Leslie, Christopher Burr, Mhairi Aitken, Josh Cowls, Mike Katell, & Morgan Briggs; Avec un avant - propos de Lord Tim Clement-Jones
Free
Fichier indisponible, contactez-nous pour plus d'informations
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Élaboré par l’Institut Alan Turing pour accompagner l'étude de faisabilité publiée par le Comité ad hoc sur l'intelligence artificielle du Conseil de l'Europe

Il est frappant de constater que les progrès rapides accomplis ces vingt dernières années dans le domaine de l’intelligence artificielle (IA) et des technologies fondées sur les données placent la société contemporaine à un moment charnière où se décide quelle forme prendra le futur de l’humanité. D’un côté, la multiplication des innovations de l’IA bénéfiques pour la société promet de nous aider à lutter contre le changement climatique et la perte de la biodiversité, d’améliorer équitablement les soins médicaux, la qualité de vie, les transports, la production agricole, etc., et de remédier à bon nombre d’injustices sociales et d’inégalités matérielles qui assaillent le monde aujourd’hui. De l’autre, les innovations irresponsables de l’IA qui prolifèrent sont les signes avant-coureurs des problèmes éventuels qui nous attendent si ces technologies poursuivent sur leur lancée inquiétante.

Le présent Guide introductif a pour objet de présenter à un public général et non technique les grands concepts et principes exposés dans l’Étude de faisabilité du CAHAI. Il vise aussi à fournir des informations générales sur les domaines de l’innovation en matière d’IA, des normes de protection des droits de l’homme et des mécanismes de conformité, qui entrent dans le champ de cette étude. Conformément à l’engagement du Conseil de l’Europe de mener de larges consultations multipartites et de vastes actions de sensibilisation et de mobilisation, ce guide a été conçu pour faciliter la participation éclairée et pleinement pertinente d’un groupe inclusif de parties prenantes, le CAHAI souhaitant obtenir des retours d’information et des orientations générales sur les questions essentielles soulevées par l’Étude de faisabilité.
01 INTRODUCTION
02 COMMENT LES SYSTÈMES D’IA FONCTIONNENT-ILS ?
Concepts techniques
Types d’apprentissage automatique
Étapes du cycle de vie de l’IA
03 BRÈVE INTRODUCTION AUX DROITS DE L’HOMME, À LA DÉMOCRATIE ET À L’ÉTAT DE DROIT
Interdépendance des droits de l’homme, de la démocratie et de l’État de droit
04 OPPORTUNITÉS ET RISQUES DE L’IA ET DE L’APPRENTISSAGE AUTOMATIQUE, ET LEURS RÉPERCUSSIONS SUR LES DROITS DE L’HOMME, LA DÉMOCRATIE ET L’ÉTAT DE DROIT
05 PRINCIPES ET PRIORITÉS POUR LA DÉFINITION D'UN CADRE JURIDIQUE
Relations entre les principes, les droits et les obligations
Considérations additionnelles
06 PANORAMA DES INSTRUMENTS JURIDIQUES
Cadres juridiques internationaux
Approches actuelles de droit souple
Instruments juridiques nationaux
Le rôle des acteurs privés
Limitations actuelles
Besoins et opportunités futurs
Solutions envisageables pour la définition d’un cadre juridique
07 MÉCANISMES PRATIQUES À L’APPUI DU CADRE JURIDIQUE
Le rôle des mécanismes de conformité
Le rôle des différents acteurs
Exemples de types de mécanismes de conformité
Mécanismes de suivi
08 CONCLUSION
09 ANNEXES 
Glossaire
Travaux du Conseil de l’Europe et autres travaux afférents dans le domaine de l’IA et ses domaines connexes: état des lieux