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Catalog

Guidelines on National Digital Identity (2023)

Data protection
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Consultative Committee of the Convention for the protection of individuals with regard to automatic processing of personal data - Convention 108
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National digital identity schemes and systems should be complying with human rights standards, including the right to privacy and protection of personal data.

While national digital identity schemes and systems (NIDS) bring significant benefits, notably in helping individuals’ access to important rights, they may also have adverse consequences for the human rights of individuals and communities and groups of individuals. These consequences can range from discrimination and exclusion to marginalisation, to unwarranted profiling and surveillance, to a person’s loss of control over their identity or even the misuse or theft of one’s identity.

To counter this potential for adverse impacts on human rights, NIDS should take a human right centered approach as anchored in international law, starting from the policy, design, implementation, and operation of national digital identity schemes and systems.

Founded on the principles and provisions of Convention 108+, these guidelines promote an objective assessment of all interests at stake including the benefits of such systems against the interference they might represent with human rights and fundamental freedoms of individuals. They also provide recommendations for each type of actors of the development and implementation of such systems as well as concrete guidance for the engagement of stakeholders in an impact assessment.
INTRODUCTION
SCOPE AND PURPOSE 
PRINCIPLES FOR THE PROTECTION OF PERSONAL DATA AND HUMAN RIGHTS AND FUNDAMENTAL FREEDOMS – HUMAN DIGNITY 
Legitimacy of processing 
Fairness and transparency 
Specific and legitimate purpose(s) and purpose limitation 
Data quality – accurate, adequate, relevant, and not excessive 
Data retention 
Security of processing 
Profiling and automated decision making 
Human rights and privacy by design and human rights centred impact assessments 
Accountability 
Rights of individuals 
RECOMMENDATIONS FOR POLICY AND DECISION-MAKERS 
RECOMMENDATIONS FOR DATA CONTROLLERS 
RECOMMENDATIONS FOR MANUFACTURERS, SERVICE PROVIDERS AND DEVELOPERS 
RECOMMENDATIONS FOR SUPERVISORY DATA PROTECTION AUTHORITIES 
GLOSSARY 
ANNEX A – SUGGESTED LIST OF STAKEHOLDERS 
ANNEX B – EXAMPLE STAKEHOLDER ENGAGEMENT APPROACH