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Liberté, régulation et fiabilité des médias - Approche structurelle du désordre informationnel (2020)

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Damian Tambini
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Les réformes fondamentales de la gouvernance des médias, discutées dans les Etats membres du Conseil de l'Europe, pourraient-elles se révéler pires que les problèmes rencontrés tels que la désinformation en ligne, le discours de haine et l'ingérance électorale?

Nos pays voient aujourd’hui leur paysage médiatique changer comme jamais, avec la montée du numérique, et notamment des plates-formes en ligne, au détriment des médias classiques. Ce phénomène a des incidences majeures sur le système complexe du financement, de l’éthique et de la régulation des médias. Le secteur médiatique connaît de graves difficultés financières, accompagnées d’une baisse de confiance. Rien de surprenant, quand on connaît les difficultés soulevées par la consommation d’informations sur les réseaux sociaux : faits non vérifiés, confusion sur les sources et même désinformation, rhétorique haineuse et manipulation des électeurs.

Devant ces problèmes, des réformes de la législation et des politiques médiatiques sont à l’étude dans toute l’Europe, comprenant des codes de conduite, des modifications dans la responsabilité des plates-formes en ligne et de nouvelles infractions de manipulation électorale. Ces réformes, bien que nécessaires, doivent être mises en oeuvre dans le respect des droits de l’homme, de la démocratie et de l’État de droit. Il faut donc réaffirmer le principe de l’indépendance et de la liberté des médias. Le Conseil de l’Europe devrait oeuvrer activement à ce que les nouveaux cadres d’autorégulation et de corégulation aient des effets positifs, et non négatifs, sur la démocratie et les droits de l’homme, et à ce que les normes soient mises à jour pour refléter les défis d’aujourd’hui.

(Intelligence artificielle – Une politique intelligente
Défis et perspectives pour les médias et la démocratie
Document de référence, Conférence ministérielle, Chypre 2020)
RÉSUMÉ 
1. INTRODUCTION ET CONTEXTE 
2. LA CONFIANCE DANS LES MÉDIAS 
a. Pourquoi la confiance compte 
b. Une confiance en baisse 
3. CONFIANCE ET ÉVOLUTION DES MÉDIAS 
a. Évolution des médias, 1987-2019 
b. Symptômes du changement de paradigme et réponses possibles 
c. Approches de régulation possibles 
4. LA RUÉE VERS LA RÉFORME DES MÉDIAS 
a. Réactions du secteur médiatique: autorégulation, vérification des faits, modération et étiquetage 
b. Réactions politiques 
5. NE PAS SURRÉAGIR: LES DANGERS D’UNE RÉGULATION « IMPULSIVE » 
a. De nouveaux principes pour la gouvernance des communications 
b. Principes et objectifs des réformes 
c. Responsabilité 
d. Interventions structurelles 
6. CONCLUSION: NORMES DU CONSEIL DE L’EUROPE 
RÉFÉRENCES