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Catalogue

Newsletter

Links betweek freedom of expression and other human rights (2019)

Libertés fondamentales
Format : PDF PDF
138819GBR
Type de document :
Document
Format :
PDF
Langue :
Anglais
Dimensions :
2.10 MB
Nombre de pages :
126
Steering Committee on Human Rights (CDDH)
Gratuit
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Guide to good and promising practices on the way of reconciling freedom of expression with other rights and freedoms, in particular in culturally diverse societies

Freedom of expression, which is protected by Article 10 of the European Convention on Human Rights, is integral to open and inclusive societies. Indeed, it is the cornerstone of culturally diverse, pluralistic societies. It is not, however, an absolute right and it can be subject to limitations in accordance with Article 10(2) of the Convention. This Guide responds to the wish of the Committee of Ministers to have a practical tool which can be used by member States when reconciling the right to freedom of expression with other human rights, in particular: the right to respect for private life; right to freedom of thought, conscience and religion; freedom of assembly and association; and the prohibition of discrimination. In this regard, the good and promising practices presented in the Guide detail the approaches and methods States use, and serve as an example for the development and incorporation of further measures and improved cooperation.

This Guide has been prepared by the Steering Committee for Human Rights (CDDH) and it builds on the standards, principles and recommendations from international, regional and national legal bodies. Moreover, the Guide provides succinct summaries of the principles established in the relevant jurisprudence of the European Court of Human Rights. Whilst the Guide is mainly intended for policy makers and public authorities, it is a useful tool for a wider audience.

In this Guide, the reader will find: an in-depth exposition on the scope and content of the right to freedom of expression; the relation of specific actors to freedom of expression; its importance for political discourse; links between freedom of expression and other human rights. The Guide draws attention to contemporary issues that interact with freedom of expression, such as information disorder (“fake news”) and hate speech. It also mentions the development of artificial intelligence (AI) which is likely to have implications for the exercise of the freedom of expression, presenting both challenges and opportunities.
I. BACKGROUND 
II. INTRODUCTION 
III. SCOPE AND CONTENT OF THE RIGHT TO FREEDOM OF EXPRESSION 
A. Protection of freedom of expression 
International and regional levels 
National level 
Article 10 of the ECHR 
Scope 
Permissible limitations 
States’ obligations 
Access to information online and offline 
B. Specific actors and their relation to freedom of expression 
Media 
Civil society actors
Internet intermediaries 
i. Specific focus area: Freedom of expression in political discourse 
Freedom of political debate 
Responsibility of political leaders and political parties 
Measures to combat political statements that incite to violence or hatred 
a. Self-regulation 
b. Withdrawal of public financial and other forms of support 
c. Prohibition and dissolution of political parties and organisations in exceptional cases 
Higher degree of tolerance of criticism towards politicians 
ii. Specific focus area: Information disorder (“fake news”) 
Regulations at national level 
Multi-dimensional approach 
Fact-checking and trust-enhancing initiatives 
Promoting media pluralism and diversity 
Awareness-raising and media literacy 
Coordinated responses and continued research 
IV. Specific focus area: HATE SPEECH 
The challenge of defining ‘hate speech’ 
Developing comprehensive national strategies 
Enacting legislation in accordance with international and regional obligations 
Strengthening the prosecution of hate speech offences
Self-regulation by public and private institutions 
Increasing the reporting of hate speech 
Supporting victims of hate speech 
Enhancing research and monitoring, including data collection 
Education and awareness-raising, including intercultural dialogue 
Dialogue with media at large including social media platforms, civil society and other relevant actors 
Counter-speech 
V. FREEDOM OF EXPRESSION IN RELATION TO SPECIFIC OTHER HUMAN RIGHTS 
A. Freedom of expression and right to private life 
B. Freedom of expression and freedom of thought, conscience and religion 
Competing interests of freedom of expression and freedom of thought,
conscience and religion 
Religious symbols in public areas 
Whistle-blowing 
Blasphemy, religious insult and incitement to religious hatred 
C. Freedom of expression and freedom of assembly and association 
D. Freedom of expression and prohibition of discrimination
VI. CONCLUSIONS 
APPENDIX
Analysis of the relevant jurisprudence of the European Court of Human Rights and other Council of Europe instruments to provide additional guidance on how to reconcile freedom of expression with other rights and freedoms, in particular in culturally diverse societies