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Catalogue

Newsletter

Towards regulation of AI systems (2020)

Intelligence artificielle
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CAHAI - Ad hoc Committee on Artificial Intelligence (Isaac BEN-ISRAEL, Jorge CERDIO, Arisa EMA, Leehe FRIEDMAN, Marcelo IENCA, Alessandro MANTELERO, Eviatar MATANIA, Catelijne MULLER, Hideaki SHIROYAMA, Effy VAYENA)
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Global perspectives on the development of a legal framework on Artificial Intelligence (AI) systems based on the Council of Europe’s standards on human rights, democracy and the rule of law

Artificial intelligence (AI) systems are increasingly being used in our everyday life and in almost every kind of human activity, for instance in areas such as education and welfare, information society, judicial and law enforcement systems and recently to fight the Covid-19 pandemic. Very often referred to as “game changers”, AI systems can bring about many benefits, but they can also raise complex and important legal, ethical, policy and economic issues.

This publication aims to feed the ongoing reflections within the CAHAI on the analysis of the challenges arising from AI systems and possible regulatory responses. Firstly, it sets out to inform the reader of the progress of the work of the Ad Hoc Committee on Artificial Intelligence (CAHAI) and it presents several studies produced under the CAHAI. Secondly, it brings in national perspectives of different observer States, from Israel, Japan and Mexico, to support the development of an international legal framework of artificial intelligence based on the standards established by the Council of Europe.
OPENING WORDS
SUMMARY
TITLE I. INTERNATIONAL PERSPECTIVE OF AI SYSTEMS REGULATION BASED ON THE COUNCIL OF EUROPE’S STANDARDS 
PRELIMINARY CHAPTER. Progress report of the Ad hoc Committee on Artificial Intelligence (CAHAI)
I. Executive summary
II. Background and CAHAI's mandate
III. Progress of work
IV. The impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on CAHAI's activities
V. Working methods, documents and roadmap
VI. Synergy and complementarity of CAHAI's work
with that of other international organisations
VII. Budgetary implications
VIII. Conclusions and concrete proposals for action
Annex I. Draft table of contents of the Feasibility Study
Annex II. CAHAI Roadmap
Annex III. Terms of reference of the Working Groups
CHAPTER I. The Impact of AI on Human Rights, Democracy and the Rule of Law
I. Introduction
II. Defining AI
i. Defining AI for regulatory purposes
III. Impact of AI on Human Rights, Democracy and the Rule of Law
i. AI & Respect for Human Value
ii. AI & Freedom of the Individual
iii. AI & Equality, Non-discrimination and Solidarity
iv. AI & Social and Economic Rights AI in and around the Workplace
v. AI & Democracy
vi. AI & Rule of Law
IV. How to address the impact of AI on Human Rights, Democracy and Rule of Law?
i. Putting human rights in an AI context
ii. Measures for compliance, accountability and redress
iii. Protecting democracy, democratic structures and the rule of law
V. What if current human rights, democracy and the rule of law fail to adequately protect us?
i. Question Zero
ii. Red Lines
iii. Some adapted or new human rights
iv. Future scenarios
CHAPTER II. AI Ethics Guidelines:
European and Global Perspectives
I. Executive Summary
II. Key findings
III. Key policy implications
IV. Introduction
V. Methodology
i. Screening
ii. Eligibility Assessment
iii. Content Analysis
iv. Normative ethical and policy analysis
VI. Findings
i. Limitations
ii. Discussion and Normative Ethical Analysis
iii. Policy Implications
Acknowledgments
References
CHAPTER III. Analysis of international legally binding instruments. Final report
I. Executive Summary
II. Scope and Methodology
i. The scenario
ii. Research focus and methodology
iii. Analysis and expected results
III. Analysis
i. General overview
ii. Data Protection
iii. Health
iv. Democracy
v. Justice
IV. Harmonisation of the principles identified
V. Conclusions
References
Annex 1. Legal instruments
Annex 2. Impacted areas
Annex 3. Principles
Annex 4. Data Protection
TITLE II. NATIONAL PERSPECTIVES OF AI SYSTEMS REGULATION
CHAPTER I. Harnessing Innovation:
Israeli Perspectives on AI Ethics and Governance
I. Executive Summary
Acknowledgments
II. Introduction
Israel’s National Initiative for Secured Intelligent Systems
III. AI applications in Israel – A public policy opportunity
i. The private sector
ii. Government initiatives and policy
IV. Risks and challenges posed by AI in the fields of human rights, democracy and the rule of law
i. What Is New and Special about AI?
ii. Ethical risks and Challenges
V. Israel's approach to address the challenges
i. Six Ethical Principles for AI
ii. Balanced regulation to foster innovation
iii. Original Ethical Risk Assessment Tool
iv. International activity and cooperation
Annex I. Israel’s AI startup landscape segmented by sectors and applications
Annex II. Frequency Map of Ethical Challenges in the AI Development Process
CHAPTER II. AI Governance in Japan
I. Introduction
II. AI Governance in Japan
i. The role of each actor
ii. Discussions on AI in ministries and agencies
iii. Results
III. Comparison of AI governance in Japan and abroad
i. Comparison of the roles of different actors
ii. Trends and issues in focused AI technologies and fields
iii. How to create a forum for discussion and its challenges
IV. Conclusions
Acknowledgements
Annexes
CHAPTER III. AI-Applications in Mexico. A view from the inside
I. Introduction
II. Observing Public and Private AI-Applications in Mexico
i. Public Interest Driven AI-Applications in Mexico
ii. Private Interest Driven AI-Applications in Mexico
III. Accounting for AI (de)regulation in Mexico
i. Legal framework and public policy around and about AI
ii. A collective framework on and about regulating AI
IV. Conclusions
References